Hofstede's initial research began in the late 's and focused on the IBM global workforce.
Conservative, rigid and structured, unless the danger of failure requires a more flexible attitude. People are expressive, and are allowed to show anger or emotions, if necessary.
A high energy society, if people feel that they are in control of their life instead of feeling overwhelmed by life's vagaries. Be clear and concise about expectations and goals, and set clearly defined parameters. But encourage creative thinking and dialogue where you can.
Recognize that there may be unspoken "rules" or cultural expectations you need to learn. Recognize that emotion, anger and vigorous hand gestures may simply be part of the conversation.
Low UAI Openness to change or innovation, and generally inclusive.
More inclined to open-ended learning or decision making. Less sense of urgency.
Ensure that people remain focused, but don't create too much structure. Titles are less important, so avoid "showing off" your knowledge or experience. Respect is given to those who can cope under all circumstances.
Countries with a long-term orientation tend to be pragmatic, modest, and more thrifty. In short-term oriented countries, people tend to place more emphasis on principles, consistency and truth, and are typically religious and nationalistic. This is reflected in the importance of short-term gains and quick results profit and loss statements are quarterly, for example.
It is also reflected in the country's strong sense of nationalism and social standards. For example, questions like "What? Virtues and obligations are emphasized.
Behave in a modest way. Avoid talking too much about yourself. People are more willing to compromise, yet this may not always be clear to outsiders; this is certainly so in a culture that also scores high on PDI.
Short-Term Orientation People often want to know "Why? As people tend to oversell themselves, others will assess their assertions critically. Values and rights are emphasized.
Sell yourself to be taken seriously. People are less willing to compromise as this would be seen as weakness. Indulgence Versus Restraint IVR Hofstede's sixth dimension, discovered and described together with Michael Minkov, is also relatively new, and is therefore accompanied by less data.
Countries with a high IVR score allow or encourage relatively free gratification of people's own drives and emotions, such as enjoying life and having fun.
In a society with a low IVR score, there is more emphasis on suppressing gratification and more regulation of people's conduct and behavior, and there are stricter social norms. Finding This Article Useful?
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People put little emphasis on leisure time and, as the title suggests, people try to restrain themselves to a high degree.Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Culture′s Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book′s cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included.
The book is structured around five major dimensions. This kind of discontent showed itself, for instance, in the complaint made by members of the National Liaison Committee for International Students in Australia () that only a small number of Australian universities had credible ‘cross-cultural training’ programmes for staff or for students.
The six dimensions of national culture are based on extensive research done by Professor Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov and their research teams. The application of this research is used worldwide in both academic and professional management settings.
Jun 01, · Given the emerging evidence that national culture influences visitor behavior and that Hofstede’s concept (, ) has become the most accepted means to quantify dominant national cultural values, the focus of this study was to test the underlying assumptions of how these measures are applied in research.
Describe how the two countries are different in terms of Hofstadter five cultural dimensions. Given a scenario where two organizations, one located in each country, are to do business with each other, provide recommendations that would be beneficial in helping management address communications in terms of the different cultural .
Geert Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions National cultures can be described according to the analysis of Geert Hofstede. These ideas were first based on a large research project into national culture differences across subsidiaries of a multinational corporation (IBM) in 64 countries.