The 4-year completion rate calculation is dependent on the availability of dropout estimates over a 4-year span, and current counts of completers. Because dropout rate information was missing for many states during the 4-year period considered by the US Department of Education, 4- year completion rate estimates for the school year are only available for 39 states. Since data were not available from all states, an overall national rate could not be calculated. However, among reporting states, the high school 4-year completion rates for public school students ranged from a high of
See Article History Equal protection, in United States law, the constitutional guarantee that no person or group will be denied the protection under the law that is enjoyed by similar persons or groups. In other words, persons similarly situated must be similarly treated.
Equal protection is extended when the rules of law are applied equally in all like cases and when persons are exempt from obligations greater than those imposed upon others in like circumstances. The Fourteenth Amendment to the U. In other decisions—such as Plessy v.
Fergusonwhich sanctioned racial segregationand the decisions creating the doctrine of state action, which limited the enforcement of national civil rights legislation—the court diminished the envisioned protections.
Indeed, for nearly 80 years after the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, the intent of the equal protection clause was effectively circumvented.
Board of Education decision did the court reverse its decision in Plessy and declare racial segregation unconstitutional. Under Chief Justice Earl Warren in the s, the concept of equal protection was dramatically transformed and applied to cases involving welfare benefits, exclusionary zoningmunicipal services, and school financing.
Equal protection became a prolific source of constitutional litigation.
During the tenure of Chief Justices Warren E. Burger and William H. Rehnquistthe court added considerably to the list of situations that might be adjudicated under the doctrine of equal protection, including sexual discrimination, the status and rights of aliens, voting, abortion, and access to the courts.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:The United States has a lengthy history of racial discrimination in various aspects of life including education, employment, housing, public accommodations and other areas; the Supreme Court has dealt with the issue in numerous cases.
The racial achievement gap in the United States refers to the educational disparities between various ethnic groups. It manifests itself in a variety of ways: among students, blacks and Hispanics are more likely to receive lower grades, score lower on standardized tests, drop out of high school, and they are less likely to enter and complete college than whites, who similarly score lower than.
Racial profiling is irrational, unjust, and unproductive, but one thing it is not is un-American.
Racial profiling has been part of the U.S. criminal justice system for as long as there has been a U.S. criminal justice system, and part of North American colonial justice systems in the centuries prior to its formation.
Fifteen years after the United States ratified ICERD and one year after a review of U.S. compliance with the treaty, The Persistence of Racial and Ethnic Profiling in the United States is submitted to the U.N.
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination as a follow-up report documenting violations of ICERD at the federal, state, and.
The incarceration of Japanese American citizens during the Second World War was one of the most flagrant violations of civil rights ever inflicted by the United States government. Despite constitutional and legal measures aimed at protecting the rights of racial minorities in the United States, the private beliefs and practices of many Americans remained racist, and some group of assumed lower status was often made a scapegoat.
That tendency has persisted well into the 21st century. Because, in the popular mind, “race” is linked to physical differences among peoples.