Slade Mendenhall May 22, Portfolio There can be no more central question to studies of war and terrorism than that which looks to the root of human conflict in pursuit of its most fundamental causes. In so doing, modern scholarship has cultivated numerous popular hypotheses, each thoroughly written of and critically discussed:
We organize ourselves into various kinds of social groupings, such as nomadic bands, villages, cities, and countries, in which we work, trade, play, reproduce, and interact in many other ways. Unlike other species, we combine socialization with deliberate changes in social behavior and organization over time.
Consequently, the patterns of human society differ from place to place and era to era and across cultures, making the social world a very complex and dynamic environment. Insight into human behavior comes from many sources.
The views presented here are based principally on scientific investigation, but it should also be recognized that literature, drama, history, philosophy, and other nonscientific disciplines contribute significantly to our understanding of ourselves.
Social scientists study human behavior from a variety of cultural, political, economic, and psychological perspectives, using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. They look for consistent patterns of individual and social behavior and for scientific explanations of those patterns.
In some cases, such patterns may seem obvious once they are pointed out, although they may not have been part of how most people consciously thought about the world. This chapter covers recommendations about human society in terms of individual and group behavior, social organizations, and the processes of social change.
It is based on a particular approach to the subject: The chapter describes seven key aspects of human society: Although many of the ideas are relevant to all human societies, this chapter focuses chiefly on the social characteristics of the present-day United States.
The ways in which people develop are shaped by social experience and circumstances within the context of their inherited genetic potential. The scientific question is just how experience and hereditary potential interact in producing human behavior.
This setting includes home, school, neighborhood, and also, perhaps, local religious and law enforcement agencies. How individuals will respond to all these influences, or even which influence will be the most potent, tends not to be predictable. Furthermore, culturally induced behavior patterns, such as speech patterns, body language, and forms of humor, become so deeply imbedded in the human mind that they often operate without the individuals themselves being fully aware of them.
Every culture includes a somewhat different web of patterns and meanings: Within a large society, there may be many groups, with distinctly different subcultures associated with region, ethnic origin, or social class.
Some subcultures may arise among special social categories such as business executives and criminalssome of which may cross national boundaries such as musicians and scientists.
Fair or unfair, desirable or undesirable, social distinctions are a salient part of almost every culture.
The form of the distinctions varies with place and time, sometimes including rigid castes, sometimes tribal or clan hierarchies, sometimes a more flexible social class.
Class distinctions are made chiefly on the basis of wealth, education, and occupation, but they are also likely to be associated with other subcultural differences, such as dress, dialect, and attitudes toward school and work. The class into which people are born affects what language, diet, tastes, and interests they will have as children, and therefore influences how they will perceive the social world.
Still, many people live lives very different from the norm for their class. The ease with which someone can change social class varies greatly with time and place. Throughout most of human history, people have been almost certain to live and die in the class into which they were born.
The times of greatest upward mobility have occurred when a society has been undertaking new enterprises for example, in territory or technology and thus has needed more people in higher-class occupations.
In some parts of the world today, increasing numbers of people are escaping from poverty through economic or educational opportunity, while in other parts, increasing numbers are being impoverished.
What is considered to be acceptable human behavior varies from culture to culture and from time period to time period. Every social group has generally accepted ranges of behavior for its members, with perhaps some specific standards for subgroups, such as adults and children, females and males, artists and athletes.
Unusual behaviors may be considered either merely amusing, or distasteful, or punishably criminal. Some normal behavior in one culture may be considered unacceptable in another.
For example, aggressively competitive behavior is considered rude in highly cooperative cultures. Conversely, in some subcultures of a highly competitive society, such as that of the United States, a lack of interest in competition may be regarded as being out of step.
Although the world has a wide diversity of cultural traditions, there are some kinds of behavior such as incest, violence against kin, theft, and rape that are considered unacceptable in almost all of them.
The social consequences considered appropriate for unacceptable behavior also vary widely between, and even within, different societies.The Wars study guide contains a biography of Timothy Findley, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
The chapter describes seven key aspects of human society: cultural effects on human behavior, the organization and behavior of groups, the processes of social change, social trade-offs, forms of political and economic organization, mechanisms for resolving conflict among groups and individuals, and national and international social systems.
Since its class interests are predominantly economic, on this model, ideology refers primarily, and in some cases solely, to those ideas that legitimate the class rule of the capitalist ruling class, and ideology is thus those sets of ideas that promote the capitalist class's economic interests.
Social Constructionism is something that a group in society has constructed, for example brotherhood is a social constructionism. It is something that is created socially but happens because society supports it and encourages it to occur.
The question of positive and negative effects of war is primarily dependent upon the nature of a particular war, but one can argue with certainty that all wars have disastrous effects on both the.
The Effects of the Second World War By the end of the Second World War, it was evident that something had gone which codified Nazi ideology and anti-Semitism, were introduced.
As More trials followed at Nuremberg that dealt with other segments of society most to blame for making the war and its atrocities possible.
These trials focused.