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Coniferous Forests Coniferous forests are dominated by gymnosperm trees such as pines, spruces, and firs. Conifers were the first plants to evolve seeds. Gymnosperms from the Greek words gymnos, meaning "naked," and sperma, meaning "seed" have seeds exposed to the environment on cones.
In most species, male and female cones occur on the same tree, but the Juniperus juniper and Taxus yews genera have species with separate male and female trees. Male cones are smaller than female cones and produce pollen in the springtime.
The larger female cones are able to be fertilized only when they are young and often unnoticeable. Most conifers rely on wind to carry their beautiful and diversely shaped pollen grains to the female cone. The phylum Coniferophyta is organized into two orders.
Older classification schemes included a third, Ginkgoales, containing only one species Ginkgo biloba ; more recent classification schemes now place Ginkgo into its own phylum, Ginkgophyta. Coniferales, with five families and over six hundred species, including the species most often identified with coniferous forests, is the most populous order.
Some of the world's most remarkable plants are found in Coniferales. Bristlecone pine Pinus aristata can live to be over six thousand years old; coastal redwoods Sequoia sempervirens grow to be over one hundred meters tall; and Monterey pine Pinus radiata is one of the most productive timber species.
The Taxales order contains two families and over thirty species but is best known for the poisonous yew Taxus genus. Conifer Leaves Most conifers are evergreen, meaning that they maintain green leaves, usually needles, year-round.
Needles exist in all families. Scalelike leaves often obscuring the woody portion of the shoot exist in the Cupressaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Taxodiaceae families. The Podocarpaceae family contains the only broadleaf conifers.
Two genera, the celery pine Phyllocladus, found in the Southern Hemisphere and the Japanese umbrella pine Sciadopitysdo not contain true leaves and instead carry out photosynthesis using specially adapted shoots.
In climates with mild, wet winters and warm, dry summers, drought adaptations and the ability to conduct photosynthesis all winter give evergreen conifers a distinct advantage over deciduous angiosperms. In the boreal forestconifers succeed due to a combination of factors.
First, growing seasons are short and conifers are able to begin photosynthesis with a full canopy as soon as temperatures warm. Second, because needles last from two to ten years, conifers need to replace fewer leaves each year than deciduous trees.
Since leaves require large amounts of nutrients, nutrient-poor areas such as the boreal forest and the southeastern United States are often dominated by conifers.
Third, conifers are more able to resist periodic drought stresses common in the boreal forest.
In the coniferous forest, there are about fifty to one hundred frost-free days (as said in the ‘introduction’). The tundra has very less trees than coniferous forest. The coniferous forest is at lower latitudes than the tundra. Growth pattern analysis of major coniferous tree species in South Korea Introduction. The principle reason Lifetime growth patterns and ages of Bolivian rain forest trees obtained by tree ring analysis. J Ecol. Brief overview places the temperate coniferous forests in the context of other temperate forests throughout the southern hemisphere, and also recaps the development of temperate forests and reasons for their existence and persistence during the Tertiary period. Ellenberg, H.
Nearly all conifers are evergreen but there are four deciduous genera: Larix, Pseudolarix, Metasequoia, and Taxodium. The Larix and Pseudolarix common name larch live in the boreal forest. In addition to possessing good cold-resistance, larches have high photosynthetic rates, flush early in the spring, and use nutrients very efficiently.
Metasequoia, the dawn redwood, grows well on damp sites. Taxodium, the swamp cypress, grows in standing water in the southeast United States and parts of Mexico.
Distribution of Coniferous Forests Coniferous forests exist in many climates around the world. The Podocarpaceae family is distributed in tropical and subtropical climates in South America and Southeast Asia.Introduction; General Overviews; Foundational Works; Journals.
provide significant coverage of conifer forests. Temperate rainforests in the western hemisphere, which include some coniferous forest types in North and South Brief overview places the temperate coniferous forests in the context of other temperate forests throughout the.
Coniferous forests have a relatively small number of tree species and a simple structure. Structure is defined as the distribution ofspecies and tree sizes (Husch et al.
The location of my biome, the coniferous forest is located on the continent of North America. It can be found in the upper part of Washington State. The annual rainfall is about cm. The temperature of the great forest ranges from degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius.
The average summer. Introduction I will be conducting an experiment which involves burning a forest to test the progression of the forest fire in relation to the high density of trees in the forest. The general hypothesis in this case would suggest the higher the density of trees, the further the fire would progress.
fire in the inland coniferous forests of western North America. The method relies on the collection and analysis of cross sections of fire-scarred trees and the identification, from increment cores, of age classes of postfire tree species. In logged areas, fire-scar and age-class data can be gathered from stumps.
Owls and hawks live in coniferous forests and many, such as the spotted owl, use dead coniferous trees for nesting sites. Mice and squirrels are the most common mammals in the coniferous forest.
During the summer, these animals eat buds, berries, seeds, and even bark.