By Saul McLeodupdated Sigmund Freudnoted a number of ego defenses which he refers to throughout his written works. His daughter Anna developed these ideas and elaborated on them, adding ten of her own. Many psychoanalysts have also added further types of ego defenses.
In the first year, all seventh- and eighth-graders in a middle school in Oregon were screened on the Trait Anger Scale TASa self-report measure that asks students to rate how angry they generally feel, e. High trait anger is a personality trait that reflects a tendency to experience frequent and intense episodes of anger.
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In the third year, all eighth-graders in a junior high in Colorado were screened on the TAS. A total of students were screened over the three-year period. The students who scored in the upper quartile on the TAS were asked for parental permission to participate in the study.
Of the potential participants, 11 left the school or were unavailable before the project started, four moved or could not be assessed at follow-up, eight parents refused to consent, and 35 parents did not return the consent form. The final participating sample consisted of high-anger students who were randomly assigned to CRCS 39 studentsto an alternative Social Skills Training SST program 40 studentsor to a no-treatment control group 41 students.
The SST group used a curriculum that emphasized social-communication skills as a way to reduce anger, while the no-treatment control students did not receive special programming or special attention.
Fifty-three percent of the sample was male, 78 percent was Caucasian, 19 percent was Latino, 2 percent was Asian, and 1 percent was Native-American. Sixteen percent of the students was in the sixth grade, 32 percent was in the seventh grade, and 53 percent was in the eighth grade.
Prior to implementation of the treatment programs, students were assessed on a variety of measures to determine their level of anger.
Symptoms of depression were assessed according to the Depression Rating Scale, which asked students whether they felt sad, low, or lonely, for example. General deviant behavior was assessed by asking students how typical it was for them to steal, lie, or cheat, while school deviance was measured by asking students whether any one of seven problems disciplined by a teacher, disciplined by the principal, suspension, tardy, detention, truant, or getting into a fight at school had occurred in the past two months.
Finally, alcohol use was assessed by asking students how many times in the past month they had used alcohol and how many times they had gotten drunk. Three groups, each consisting of 12 to 14 students, were in each treatment condition.
Groups met for nine minute sessions during regular school hours. Attendance rates were high, with students attending eight of nine sessions on average.
A follow-up assessment took place approximately eight weeks post-treatment. The content of the posttest assessment was identical to the content of the pretest assessment except that students re-rated the same three Anger Situations that they described at pretest, instead of describing new anger situations.
Analysis of pretest scores indicated that there were no significant differences between the two schools; therefore, data for analysis were collapsed across schools.
Comparisons of pretest scores also indicated no significant differences among the three treatment groups.
Key Evaluation Findings The study by Deffenbacher et al. Analyses of the anger measures revealed significant positive treatment effects on all anger instruments, with the exception of the Anger Control scale.
A consistent pattern of between-group differences was found for the anger measures; in all cases, the CRCS and SST groups differed significantly from the control group but did not differ significantly from one another.
On the Trait Anxiety Inventory, CRCS participants reported significantly less trait anxiety than control students, whereas the SST group fell between the CRCS and control groups and did not differ significantly in a statistical sense from either group.
Similarly, for depression, CRCS participants reported significantly less depression than control students, while the SST group did not differ significantly from either group. Similarly, for general deviance, CRCS participants reported significantly less general deviance than members of the control group, while SST participants were not significantly different from either group.
Similarly, for the measure of deviance at school, CRCS students reported significantly less school deviance problems than either SST or control students, who did not differ from one another.UNDERSTANDING AND COPING WITH ACHROMATOPSIA by Frances Futterman Second Edition A Publication for The Achromatopsia Network P.O.
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1. Introduction. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a highly prevalent, chronic, costly and disabling mental disorder (Tyrer & Baldwin, ).It is characterized by excessive and persistent worry and anxiety about everyday internal and external events, in combination with various psychological and somatic complaints, such as autonomic arousal, restlessness, fatigue, problems with.
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