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Pre-industrial era[ edit ] Elevator design by the German engineer Konrad Kyeser The earliest known reference to an elevator is in the works of the Roman architect Vitruviuswho reported that Archimedes c. Inthe Book of Secrets by al-Muradi in Islamic Spain described the use of an elevator-like lifting device, in order to raise a large battering ram to destroy a fortress.
Louis XV of France had a so-called 'flying chair' built for one of his mistresses at the Chateau de Versailles in The invention of a system based on the screw drive was perhaps the most important step in elevator technology since ancient times, leading to the creation of modern passenger elevators.
The first screw drive elevator was built by Ivan Kulibin and installed in the Winter Palace in Several years later another of Kulibin's elevators was installed in the Arkhangelskoye near Moscow.
Industrial era[ edit ] The development of elevators was led by the need for movement of raw materials including coal and lumber from hillsides. The technology developed by these industries and the introduction of steel beam construction worked together to provide the passenger and freight elevators in use today.
Starting in the coal mines, by the midth century elevators were operated with steam power and were used for moving goods in bulk in mines and factories.
These steam driven devices were soon being applied to a diverse set of purposes—intwo architects working in LondonBurton and Hormer, built and operated a novel tourist attraction, which they called the "ascending room".
It elevated paying customers to a considerable height in the center of London, allowing them a magnificent panoramic view of downtown. The elevator was belt-driven and used a counterweight for extra power. These quickly supplanted the earlier steam driven elevators: A water pump supplied a variable level of water pressure to a plunger encased inside a vertical cylinder, allowing the level of the platform carrying a heavy load to be raised and lowered.
Counterweights and balances were also used to increase the lifting power of the apparatus. Henry Waterman of New York is credited with inventing the "standing rope control" for an elevator in It included a light, two benches and a hand operated signal, and could be activated from the outside, without any effort on the part of the occupants.
Traction was controlled by a motor mechanic utilizing a system of toothed wheels. A safety system was designed to take effect if the cords broke. It consisted of a beam pushed outwards by a steel spring. Elisha Otis demonstrating his safety system, Crystal PalaceInElisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, which prevented the fall of the cab if the cable broke.
He demonstrated it at the New York exposition in the Crystal Palace in a dramatic, death-defying presentation in  and the first such passenger elevator was installed at Broadway in New York City on March 23, Elisha Otis's elevator patent drawingJanuary 15, The first elevator shaft preceded the first elevator by four years.
An elevator shaft was included in the design, because Cooper was confident that a safe passenger elevator would soon be invented. The Equitable Life Building completed in in New York City was thought to be the first office building to have passenger elevators.
The safety and speed of electric elevators were significantly enhanced by Frank Sprague who added floor control, automatic elevators, acceleration control of cars, and safeties.
His elevator ran faster and with larger loads than hydraulic or steam elevators, and electric elevators were installed before Sprague sold his company to the Otis Elevator Company in Sprague also developed the idea and technology for multiple elevators in a single shaft.
Inwhen hydraulic power was a well established technology, a company later named the London Hydraulic Power Company was formed by Edward B. It constructed a network of high-pressure mains on both sides of the Thames which, ultimately, extended to miles and powered some 8, machines, predominantly elevators and cranes.
Meaker patented a method which permitted elevator doors to open and close safely. Aelevator operator strike in New York City, and adoption of an emergency stop button, emergency telephone, and a soothing explanatory automated voice aided adoption.
An elevator is essentially a platform that is either pulled or pushed up by a mechanical means. A modern-day elevator consists of a cab also called a "cage", "carriage" or "car" mounted on a platform within an enclosed space called a shaft or sometimes a "hoistway".
In the past, elevator drive mechanisms were powered by steam and water hydraulic pistons or by hand.Laundry is a traditional business. Though it has seen an influx of startups, but the fact is that startup guys are tech guys who understand opportunity, business models and unit economics much.
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How to Open a Laundry Business - Duration. An elevator (US and Canada) or lift (Commonwealth countries) is a type of vertical transportation that moves people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel, or other torosgazete.comors are typically powered by electric motors that either drive traction cables and counterweight systems like a hoist, or pump hydraullic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack.
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