The American South remained one of the last vestiges of Western slavery inyet within the span of a decade its slaves would be freed and obtain not only the right to vote, but would hold political office. The Civil War resulted in a pitched battle to determine the future course of American politics and society, a battle that continues to reverberate today. Written inBlack Reconstruction literally rewrote the official history of the Civil War and Reconstruction eras. Prior to Du Bois, it was commonly accepted that the Civil War was a tragic conflict that set brother against brother, with the generic slaves acting merely as an historical backdrop.
Enjoy the Famous Daily The shattered south: The north has more of each and loses more of each: But this is money spent on the war, not the cost of the destruction of buildings and of industrial and agricultural capacity.
These other costs fall almost entirely on the south, where nearly all the fighting takes place even before the devastation caused by Sherman in By contrast the industries of the north go through a boom period, servicing the war effort at government expense.
Both sides introduce income tax for the first time to pay for the war. Other forms of tax, tariff and duty are raised to unprecedented heights. Government bonds are issued to bring in money. But there is more private wealth in the north for the government to borrow.
The south has to resort more recklessly to printing money. The result is crippling inflation. By the end of the war a Confederate dollar is worth 1. Inflation, starvation and physical ruin are frequently the aftermath of a major war. But in the south in there are other unprecedented problems.
The whole economic basis of southern life has been transformed. Some four million slaves have been freed. In addition the planters now have to pay wages to the former slaves working their plantations, and the amount of work which can be extracted from them is much reduced.
|is for Students.||The term reflected the combination of outward wealth and dazzle with inner corruption and poverty.|
|Civil War and Reconstruction, | Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History||In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the south as starting in with Emancipation and the Port Royal experiment rather than|
Previously they slaved from dawn to dusk. Now they work a labourer's day of nine or ten hours. This change in itself reduces by as much as a third the productivity of the great cotton plantations.
Meanwhile the world price of cotton has been falling, with rival supplies from India and elsewhere undercutting the southern product. For all these reasons 'king cotton' no longer reigns.
The riches which once supported the life style of the southern planters are no longer available. The rest of the whites, many of them poor, suffer in the economic depression. For them a large free black labour force also represents an economic threat.
Add deeply ingrained racial prejudice and an enhanced resentment of the north, and it is clear that the south is a somewhat intractable problem for the federal government. On what terms and with what status are the secessionist states to be readmitted to congress?
Lincoln refuses to accept this.
At the time of his death the issue is unresolved. The vice-president, Andrew Johnson, succeeding to the office of president on Lincoln's assassination, is immediately confronted with the problems of peace. This amendment, passed by congresss early inoutlaws slavery in the USA.
By the end of the year nearly all the southern states have fulfilled these terms. On paper the situation looks promising. But a crisis erupts when congress reconvenes, in Decemberwith the newly elected southern representatives. The immediate shock for the Republicans of the northern states is seeing the delegates now returned to congress from the south.
They look very much like the old guard from before the war, and are described derisively as 'Confederate Brigadiers'. The Republican majority in congress refuses to let them take their seats and immediately sets up a Joint Committee on Reconstruction - in a direct challenge to the president's management of the process.
If there is moral outrage in the section of the party known as the Radical Republicans, there is also sound political sense. The Republicans have no support as yet in the south. After winning the war, they do not now intend to lose their control of congress to southern Democrats.
The moral element in the Republican response has considerable justification. To protect white supremacy, southern state governments have been passing measures which negate in almost every practical sense the emancipation of the slaves.Both constitutional and social developments greatly changed the United States to a revolutionary proportion between and The new amendments and the fight for civil rights altered the previous way of life and forever changed American society.
vast human resources: between and , The Industrial Revolution is a complex set of economic, technological, and social changes that occurred over a substantial period of time.
Teachers should consider the documents in this collection as tools for stimulating Century America: Photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company, United States - Jim Crow legislation: African American voting in the South was a casualty of the conflict between Redeemers and Populists.
Although some Populist leaders, such as Tom Watson in Georgia, saw that poor whites and poor blacks in the South had a community of interest in the struggle against the planters and the . 1. Harold Wilensky put it baldly and succinctly: "Economic growth is the ultimate cause of welfare state development." Harold Wilensky, The Welfare State and Equality (Berkeley: University of California Press, ), p.
2. Thus, Flora and Alber find no correlation between levels of industrialization and social insurance programs of 12 European nations between .
April 3, – Pony Express begins. November 6 – United States presidential election, Abraham Lincoln elected president and Hannibal Hamlin vice president with only 39% of the vote in a . Discuss the political, economic, and social reforms introduced in the South between To what extent did these reforms survive the Compromise of Though there were many reforms introduced during the period of reconstruction, none of them had any long-lasting effects.