And when thou sendest him out free from thee, thou shalt not let him go away empty:
Arrows represent general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes along the rivers and over the lower passes. Khmer people established Khmer empire centered in Angkor in the 9th century.
While there are many assumptions regarding the origin of Tai peoples, David K.
Initial states of Thailand States in the Indochinese peninsula in the late 13th century. After the decline of the Khmer Empire and Kingdom of Pagan in the early 13th century, various states thrived in their place. The domains of Tai people existed from the northeast of present-day India to the north of present-day Laos and to the Malay peninsula.
During the 13th century, Tai people have already settled in the core land of Dvaravati and Lavo Kingdom to Nakhon Si Thammarat in the south.
There are, however, no records detailing the arrival of the Tais. He later crowned himself the first king of Sukhothai Kingdom in Mainstream Thai historians count Sukhothai as the first kingdom of Thai people. Sukhothai expanded furthest during the reign of Ram Khamhaeng — However, it was mostly a network of local lords who swore fealty to Sukhothai, not directly controlled by it.
He is believed to invent Thai script and Thai ceramics was an important export goods in his era. To the north, Mangrai who descended from a local ruler linage of Ngoenyangfounded the kingdom of Lan Na incentered in Chiang Mai.
He unified the surrounding area and his dynasty would rule the kingdom continuously for the next two centuries. He also created a network of alliance through political alliance to the east and north of Mekong.
Ayutthaya Kingdom Main articles: Ayutthaya Kingdom and Thonburi Kingdom According to the most widely accepted version of its origin, Ayutthaya Kingdom rose from the earlier, nearby Lavo Kingdom and Suvarnabhumi with Uthong as its first king.
Ayutthaya was a patchwork of self-governing principalities and tributary provinces owing allegiance to the king of Ayutthaya under mandala system. Its initial expansion is through conquest and political marriage.
Before the end of the 15th century, Ayutthaya invaded Khmer Empire twice and sacked its capital Angkor. Ayutthaya then became a regional great power in place of Khmer Empire. Constant interference of Sukhothai effectively made it a vassal state of Ayutthaya and was finally incorporated in to the kingdom.
Ayutthaya was interested in Malay peninsula but failed to conquer Malacca Sultanate which was supported by Chinese Ming Dynasty. Siamese envoys presenting letter to Pope Innocent XIEuropean contact and trade started in the early 16th century, with the envoy of Portuguese duke Afonso de Albuquerque infollowed by the French, Dutch, and English.
Multiple war with its ruling dynasty Taungoo Dynasty starting in the s in the reign of Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung were ultimately ended with capture of the capital in Then was a period of brief vassalage to Burma until Naresuan proclaimed independence in Ayutthaya then seek to improve relations with European powers for many successive reigns.
The kingdom especially prospered during cosmopolitan Narai 's reign —88 where some European travelers regarded Ayutthaya as Asian great powers alongside China and India.
However, overall relations remain stable with French missionaries still active in preaching Christianity. After that, there was a period of relative peace but the kingdom's influence gradually waned, partly because of bloody struggles over each succession, until the capital Ayutthaya was utterly destroyed in by Burma's new Alaungpaya dynasty.
Anarchy followed destruction of the former capital, with its territories split into five different factions, each controlled by a warlord.
Taksin rose to power and proclaimed Thonburi as temporary capital in the same year.Ana Paula Vitorino is a graduate in Civil Engineering, specialising in urban development and transports, () and has a Masters in Transports, () by Instituto Superior Técnico. EMPOWERMENT ZONE Welcome to Empowerment Zone (version ), the home page of Jamal Mazrui!
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